Home News Bücher ZNER Links Kontakt

Politik

Medizin

Umwelt

Neuerscheinungen

Angebote
Carnitine and Cardiovascular Diseases

Contents

PREFACE XIII
FOREWORD XVIII
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. BIOCHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF THE EFFECTS OF CARNITINE 3
2.1 Historical development 3
2.1.1 The discovery of carnitine and its chemical structure 3
2.1.2 The discovery of the main physiological function of carnitine 3
2.2 The role of carnitine in metabolism 11
2.2.1 The role of carnitine in the mitochondria 11
2.2.2 The role of carnitine in the peroxisomes 17
2.2.3 Other functions of carnitine in the organism 17
2.3 Biosynthesis, turnover and catabolism of carnitine 19
2.3.1 Biosynthesis of carnitine 19
2.3.2 Carnitine content in food, carnitine requirements and carnitine 20
concentrations in tissue and the whole organism
2.3.3 Resorption, distribution and transport of carnitine 25
2.3.4 Turnover, catabolism and excretion of carnitine 27
2.4 Carnitine deficiency 32
3. THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AND CARNITINE 49
3.1 Ischemia and stable angina pectoris 49
3.1.1 Energy metabolism in the myocardium 49
3.1.2 In vitro studies and animal experiments on ischemia and reperfusion 52
3.1.3 Carnitine application with ischemia in animal experiments 66
3.1.3.1 L- and DL-carnitine application 66
3.1.3.2 Application of propionyl- and acetyl-L-carnitine 73
3.1.3.3 Application of palmitoyl- and octanoyl-L-carnitine 79
3.1.4 Ischemia and angina pectoris in patients 81
3.1.5 Carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine application in patients with ischemia 83
and angina pectoris
3.2 Unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction 106
3.2.1 Animal experiments on unstable myocardial ischemia and myocardial 106
infarction
3.2.2 Unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction in patients 115
3.3 Arrhythmias 126
3.3.1 Pathogenesis of arrhythmias 126
3.3.2 Arrhythmias and carnitine application in animal experiments 132
3.3.3 Arrhythmias and carnitine application in patients 136
3.4 Carnitine and cardiomyopathy 144
3.4.1 Carnitine and cardiomyopathy in children 145
3.4.2 Carnitine and cardiomyopathy in adults 158
3.4.3 Carnitine and adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy 166
3.4.4 Carnitine and cardiomyopathy in diabetes mellitus 171
3.4.5 Carnitine and cardiomyopathy in renal insufficiency 174
3.4.6 Carnitine and cardiomyopathy in animals 177
3.5 Carnitine and cardiac hypertrophy 193
3.5.1 Pressure-overloaded hearts 193
3.5.1.1 Therapeutic effect of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitors 193
3.5.1.2 Therapeutic effect of propionyl-L-carnitine 199
3.5.2 Volume-overloaded hearts 203
3.5.3 The carnitine-deficient visceral steatosis (JVC) mouse 207
3.6 Carnitine and myocarditis 214
3.7 Carnitine and heart failure 219
3.7.1 Aetiology of heart failure 219
3.7.2 Carnitine metabolism in heart failure 219
3.7.3 Carnitine application in heart failure 223
3.8 Carnitine and cardiogenic shock 229
3.9 Carnitine and vasculopathies 233
3.9.1 Carnitine application in peripheral occlusive vascular diseases 233
3.9.2 Carnitine application in venous skin ulcerations (Ulcus cruris venosum) 246
3.10 Carnitine, diabetes mellitus and cardiac diseases 250
3.10.1 Carnitine, heart and diabetes mellitus in animals 250
3.10.2 Carnitine, heart and diabetes mellitus in patients 264
3.11 Carnitine and cardiac diseases in chronic hemodialysis 273
3.11.1 Carnitine depletion during hemodialysis 273
3.11.2 Carnitine depletion and cardiac function 285
3.11.3 Hemodialysis and hypertriglyceridemia 289
3.11.4 Carnitine and renal anaemia 294
3.11.5 Carnitine and hemodialysis in children 298
3.11.6 Carnitine, hemodialysis and training 301
4. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 313
5. APPENDIX 316
6. SUBJECT INDEX 329